New Caterpillar 428 backhoe loader
New Caterpillar 428 backhoe loader: description, characteristics and modifications.
Caterpillar backhoe loaders are specialized machines based on a four — wheel drive chassis. The CAT 428 model is a multi-wheel loader with side-mounted earthmoving equipment and the ability to attach loading, engineering and utility mechanisms to it.
The 428 series wheel loaders are a continuation of the American Caterpillar brand. The model combines maneuverability, economy and performance.
The first device from the line came off the Assembly line in 1985. In the future, the design was constantly changed. Today, the excavator is produced under the index "F2".
In the basic configuration, a Caterpillar 3054C diesel engine is installed on the loader. On request, you can install the engine of the CAT C4.4 model, which meets more stringent environmental standards.
These are inline four-cylinder engines with mechanical control, equipped with turbocharging. The design of the second engine provides an intercooler to increase power output.
One of the indicators that characterize the operation of equipment is fuel consumption. The payback period and further operating costs depend on it.
A fuel tank with a capacity of 160 liters is installed on the excavator. This amount is enough for continuous work during one shift.
Traditionally, the manufacturer indicates fuel consumption as a range for different loads:
• low — 7.6-9.5 l/h;
• average — 9.8-11.5 l/h;
• maximum — 12.4-16.5 l/h.
The Caterpillar 428f engine will deliver the declared power when the machine is operating at an altitude of up to 2300 meters above sea level. At higher levels, the torque will automatically decrease to protect the hydraulic system and gearbox.
To activate the actuators in the excavator, a hydraulic system with a closed center is used.
• The working fluid is pumped by an axial piston pump. It produces 160 l/min at a pressure of 25 MPa.
• Control the flow of spool valves.
• The system reservoir holds 40 liters of working fluid.
The CAT 428f2 loader is made according to the all-wheel drive scheme, which is typical for all cars of the Caterpillar brand in this class. A transmission consisting of a clutch, gearbox, transfer case, two cardans and axles is responsible for transmitting torque to the drive wheels.
• To facilitate maintenance, the final drives are made in the form of external on-board gearboxes.
• The loader has a reinforced rear axle designed for heavy-duty operation. It is equipped with self-regulating internal brakes, differential lock clutch.
• The front axle has a pendulum-type attachment to reduce dynamic loads while driving.
In addition, the developers have tried to reduce the maintenance of the structure to a minimum. The case is sealed, and the lubricant should be enough for the entire service life.
Caterpillar 428F is equipped with a six — speed transmission, which produces 6 speeds for forward and 4 for reverse. In addition, the operator has two control modes available — switching under load and automatic.
The 4×4 drive can be activated at rest or in motion. In the latter case, you can activate the front axle in any gear, both in the forward and reverse directions of movement. The operator activates the drive by pressing the appropriate switch or brake pedal.
On request, an automatic transmission and torque converter with a locking clutch are installed to increase the speed of the car and reduce fuel consumption. In addition, free space in the cabin is freed up by reducing the number of controls.
For example, here are the values for a loader in the basic version with a standard handle and a standard bucket with a volume of 1.0 m3.
The basis of the structure is a welded frame, which is attached to:
• power unit;
Almost completely made by automatic welding machines without human intervention, which increases its strength and durability.
The cab was placed above the gearbox and the rear axle. This configuration provides an equally good view when working with the loading bucket and earthmoving equipment. The latter is achieved by shifting the mechanism to the right side relative to the operator.
Sliding supports were placed behind the rear wheels to give the car stability when excavating the ground with an earthmoving bucket.
The 428 series has been produced for 35 years. During this time, the design of the machine has undergone several improvements. Today, Caterpillar produces a model with the index 428F2.
Previous models that are still found on the secondary market — 428e, 428d, 428d2. Their power levels were almost unchanged, but there was less electronics. In addition, early models were equipped with a manual transmission.
Features of operation:
The standard cab is installed on the "F2" model of the basic configuration. A Deluxe cabin with improved noise and vibration isolation is available on request.
Regardless of the class, the standard version has a productive air conditioning system and security systems — ROPS and FOPS. The first protects the operator when the loader overturns, and the second from falling objects.
The rear and front lights can be adjusted by directing the light rays to the desired point.
The developers have tried to simplify and minimize the intervention of the machine operator in the operation of the main components and mechanisms.
• All daily inspection points are grouped together and easily accessible.
• Drive axles are sealed, do not require frequent maintenance and labor-intensive lubrication of components under the bottom of the machine.
• During scheduled maintenance, the wear plates of the telescopic boom and the extendable supports can be quickly adjusted. The mounting screws are placed in an accessible location, which allows you to adjust the position of the elements without disassembling the components.
• The hood has a convenient design with a folding radiator.
• The cooler rotates on its hinges to facilitate access to the engine compartment.
Caterpillar equipment has proven itself well on construction and loading sites. Among the advantages, machine operators distinguish the following nuances.
• Maneuverability. The short wheelbase together with the steering wheel rotation angle of 52° allow you to use the car in a tight space.
• Productive hydraulics. Due to the increase in cylinder diameters and increased pressure in the system, the developers have achieved an increase in efforts on the executive bodies.
• Stability. All-wheel drive allows you to operate confidently on slippery or inclined surfaces.
• Easy operation. All the main components are freely available, which makes it easier to replace worn parts, repair and maintain equipment.
• It is possible to equip the car with additional mechanisms and tools.
The disadvantages include the high price of both the device itself and its maintenance.
The loader can work for a long time without problems, because the developers carefully monitor the state of the equipment in various conditions, and correct existing design flaws.
In the secondary market, the device is sold 25-30% cheaper, depending on the operating hours.
Similar models in terms of technical characteristics are Volvo BL-71, JCB 3CX, Case 695 Super m loaders.
The American manufacturer has been developing the F2 generation loader model for 35 years. During this time, 6 modifications were released with a gradual increase in performance, handling and comfort.
Today, the Caterpillar 428F2 can be used in construction and industry, and its performance characteristics will satisfy even the most demanding customer.